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  • Writer's pictureRobert O Young DSc, PhD, Naturopathic Practitioner

Graphene Field Effect Transistors for Biomedical Applications: Current Status and Future Prospects

Updated: Sep 9, 2023

Since the discovery of the two-dimensional (2D) carbon material, graphene, just over a decade ago, the development of graphene-based field effect transistors (G-FETs) has become a widely researched area, particularly for use in point-of-care biomedical applications.



G-FETs are particularly attractive as next generation bioelectronics due to their mass-scalability and low cost of the technology's manufacture. Furthermore, G-FETs offer the potential to complete label-free, rapid, and highly sensitive analysis coupled with a high sample throughput.


These properties, coupled with the potential for integration into portable instrumentation, contribute to G-FETs' suitability for point-of-care diagnostics.


This review focuses on elucidating the recent developments in the field of G-FET sensors that act on a bioaffinity basis, whereby a binding event between a bioreceptor and the target analyte is transduced into an electrical signal at the G-FET surface.


Recognizing and quantifying these target analytes accurately and reliably is essential in diagnosing many diseases, therefore it is vital to design the G-FET with care. Taking into account some limitations of the sensor platform, such as Debye-Hükel screening and device surface area, is fundamental in developing improved bioelectronics for applications in the clinical setting. This review highlights some efforts undertaken in facing these limitations in order to bring G-FET development for biomedical applications forward.



To Read the Latest Articles on Graphene Biosensor Technology Click on the Following PDF File Links Below


Graphene Field Effect Transistors for Biomedical Applications: Current Status and Future Prospects

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Nano/Biosensors Based on Large-Area Graphene


Abstract


Two dimensional materials have properties that make them ideal for applications in chemical and biomolecular sensing. Their high surface/volume ratio implies that all atoms are exposed to the environment, in contrast to three dimensional materials with most atoms shielded from interactions inside the bulk.


Graphene additionally has an extremely high carrier mobility, even at ambient temperature and pressure, which makes it ideal as a transduction device.


The work presented in this thesis describes large-scale fabrication of Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFETs), their physical and chemical characterization, and their application as biomolecular sensors. Initially, work was focused on developing an easily scalable fabrication process.


A large-area graphene growth, transfer and photolithography process was developed that allowed the scaling of production of devices from a few devices per single transfer in a chip, to over a thousand devices per transfer in a full wafer of fabrication. Two approaches to biomolecules sensing were then investigated, through nanoparticles and through chemical linkers.


Gold and platinum Nanoparticles were used as intermediary agents to immobilize a biomolecule. First, gold nanoparticles were monodispersed and functionalized with thiolated probe DNA to yield DNA biosensors with a detection limit of 1 nM and high specicity against noncomplementary DNA.


Second,devices are modied with platinum nanoparticles and functionalized with thiolated genetically engineered scFv HER3 antibodies to realize a HER3 biosensor. Sensors retain the high anity from the scFv fragment and show a detection limit of 300 ppm.


We then show covalent and non-covalent chemical linkers between graphene and antibodies.


The chemical linker 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (pyrene) stacks to the graphene by Van der Waals interaction, being a completely non-covalent interaction. The linker4-Azide-2,3,5,6-tetrauorobenzoic acid, succinimidyl ester (azide) is a photoactivated peruorophenylazide that covalently binds to graphene.


A comparison is shown for genetically engineered scFv HER3antibodies and show a low detection limit of 10 nM and 100 ppm for the pyrene and azide, respectively. Finally, we use the azide linker to demonstrate a large-scale fabrication of a multiplexed array for Lyme disease.


Simultaneous detection of a mixture of two target proteins of the Lyme disease bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi), this is done by separating the antibodies corresponding to each target in the mixture to different regions of the chip.


We show we can differentiate concentrations of the two targets.


Nano_biosensors_based_on_large_area_grap
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Graphene uses
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Scanning & Transmission Electron Microscopy Reveals Graphene & Parasites in CoV-19 Vaccines



Scanning and Tranmission Electron Microscopy in the Identificaiton of the Non-disclosed In
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Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy Reveals Graphene Oxide in CoV-19 Vaccines". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 6.8 (2022): 98-111


ASMS-06-1351 (11)
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LINKS FOR MORE TRUTH FROM

DR. ROBERT YOUNG:


Dr. Young's major article reporting his and other scientists' findings in the 4 major COVID vaccines:



PREVIOUS PODCASTS WITH DR. YOUNG WHERE HE EXPLAINS MORE ON THESE SUBJECTS:


Report 255 | Dr. Robert Young: All Disease is Outfection Not Infection--Vaccine Nano is Bioweapon!



Newsbreak 135--BREAKING: Immense Harm from Crystallizing Blood Cells/Graphene Poisoning Post-Vaccine



Newsbreak 133: Team of Scientists Confirm Presence of Toxins Graphene, Aluminium, Cadmium Selenide, Stainless Steel, LNP-GO Capsids, Parasites, Other Toxins Variously in 4 COVID Vaccines: Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson


https://everydayconcerned.net/2021/08/28/newsbreak-133-team-of-scientists-confirm-presence-of-toxins-graphene-aluminium-cadmium-selenide-stainless-steel-lnp-go-capsids-parasites-other-toxins-variously-in-4-covid-vaccines-pfizer-mode/


For the Carnicom Disclosure Project on Magnetism, Trans-humanism, Synthetic Biology, Vaccine Poisons, Bio Surveillance, Neuromodulation, Electromagnetic Bio-Human Effects, Virus Confusions, Terrain and Blood Health and the Secret Elixir of Life -


Scientific Articles - www.drrobertyoung.com/blog




Want to learn more?





Special guest Dr. Robert Young makes his first appearance on the show to speak with Liberty Man about his microscopy and spectroscopy findings in the gene juice injections.



Dr. Young and Liberty Man talk about FDA corruption and share perspectives on the nanotechnology aspects of the shots, including topics such as RNA interference, toxicity, shedding, blood clots, and electromagnetic frequencies, and how all of this plays into the larger agenda of a digital ID social-credit prison system.








Extraordinary and riveting account of healing from terminal lung cancer and recovering from COVID symptoms on the pH Miracle Lifestyle healing program of alkaline diet, exercise, and healing foods from Dr. Robert Young, who describes the healing power of the right foods and actions to maintain the right pH balance in the interstitial fluids of the body, and encourages all to learn more about how disease is not transmitted by germs—as Virology would have it—but cultured in acidic environments, and how switching our diets and lifestyles from acidic to alkaline can transform our lives.







Pathological Blood Coagulation Book proof-2
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Peer-reviewed and Published June 20th, 2016 in the Journal of Vaccines and Vaccinations


[1] Young RO (2016) Second Thoughts about Viruses, Vaccines, and the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis - Part 1. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(3): 00032. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00032


IJVV-02-00032
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[2] Young RO (2016) Second Thoughts Concerning Viruses, Vaccines and the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis - Part 2. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(3): 00034. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00034

[3] Young RO (2016) Second Thoughts Concerning Viruses, Vaccines and the HIV/AIDS Hypothesis - Part 3 HIV/AIDS and the Monomorphic Disease Model. Int J Vaccines Vaccin 2(3): 00035. DOI: 10.15406/ijvv.2016.02.00035



Published in the Early 90's One Sickness, One Disease, One Treatment


One Sickness, One Disease, One Treatment First Edition Published in1996 - OUT of PRINT



"There is only one treatment, restore the alkaline design of the body fluids with an alkaline lifestyle and diet." Dr. Robert O. Young - 1996


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"For the Life of ALL Flesh is the Blood" - Moses was with one million souls who all perished wandering in ignorance in the wilderness!


Nothing Has Changed!


NOW, we have 5 billion VAXXinated men, women and children worldwide wandering and wondering about the truth that would set them free from the corruption and lies if they would just listen, watch, read, learn and JUST BELIEVE!


Truth vs Deception

Liberty vs Tyranny

COVID - 19

Fact vs Fiction

Science vs Scientism


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"Part 2

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Please

Our past covidiocy history will some day acknowledge Dr. Robert O. Young as being one of the seminal medical-science icons responsible for redeeming humanity from an unfathomable abyss.


Despite systematically targeted by a quadrillion dollar medical science establishment for decades, he continues to resurrect and claim ever higher ground in his understanding of human health and planetary welfare.


In so doing he elevates the mind and heart of millions of souls who cherish him as a Godly man and a brilliant scholar.


The coupling of Dr Young with the remarkable T.M. Ballantyne Jr. ignites a most inspired and formidable vanguard in truth and disclosure”. Sacha Stone -


www.drrobertyoung.com


Canada Loves YOU Dr. Robert Young


"Thank-you Dr. Robert Young for being the Camelot of our Time in these days where the balance of the Earth is at stake against the fight of this Dark Regime.


"The Fall of the Olden Ones is finally at hand, and your message to the world brings a desperately needed repose to all the voices that have been silenced.


"Your voice resonates through our hearts as your sound words reassures us and heals our wounds of despair & distraught endure these

many years & life times for those who have walked this Earth since it’s beginning.


"Thank you for bringing in the love of humanity as a messenger of hope and deliverance for the many awakening from the grip of falsehood in this duality of reality we call life.


"Perception has many signs of deceit by the spoken word of what we call the English language.


"Perhaps the reversal of this language will finally be exposed and the Rosetta Stone of Truth will finally allow us to walk this elevation of New Earth in peace and harmony with all of humanity.


"We thank you Dr. Robert Young for being our Anchor in the worst of storms, for being our light in our darkest hour.


"Your support is your true crown of loyalty to Source and it is recognized with such admiration.


"We thank you for every word spoken which brings upon a smile on humanities heart & soul.


"You are a true soldier of our days!!!


"As we watch our loved ones decay in these precious times of hope, YOU have brought comfort in knowing that even if the battle is lost that what is coming will finally bring an end to this life we call war!" - George Boulet - Canada



Solutions to Pollutions


You can NOW purchase "The pH Miracle Revised and Updated" with our NEW book, "Truth vs Deception - Liberty vs Tyranny - COVID - 19 Fact vs Fiction" at a reduced price! Check it out at the following link: https://www.amazon.com/TRUTH-vs-DECEPTION-Liberty-Covid-19/dp/B0BZF59C17/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1680115764&sr=1-1



Please support our work, reasearch and findings by purchasing "The pH Miracle Revised and Updated" & "Truth vs Deception - Liberty vs Tyranny - COVID - 19 Facts vs Fiction" and Science vs Scientism by donating at: www.givesendgo.com/research



"This is the year, 2023, to return to God, truth, intelligence, faith, peace, freedom, forgiveness of self and others, health, hope, love and charity! before it is too late" Dr. Robert O. Young


"Now is the time to prepare to meet OUR CREATOR" - www.drrobertyoung.com


You must be the Health and Fitness YOU Want to See!

The need for education and understanding the truth, can be found in "Truth versus Deception" Part 1 and Part 2, including "The pH MIracle Revised and Updated books.


Part 1



Part 2

To Order Part II Click on the Following Below:



Please check out the correlation between EMF radio and microwave frequencies and disease, and the need to bring this information to the whole of humanity.

electorHeader

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Telegram: https://t.me/DrRobertOYoungNews

Help Support the Research of Dr. Robert O. Young: https://www.givesendgo.com/research


"My People Perish From Ignorance" - Hosea


"Protect the blood and you will protect against any sickness or dis-ease" - Dr. Robert O. Young


"For the Life of ALL Flesh is the Blood" - Moses was with one million souls who all perished wandering in ignorance in the wilderness!


Nothing Has Changed!


NOW, we have 5 billion VAXXinated men, women and children worldwide wandering and wondering about the truth that would set them free from the corruption and lies if they would just listen, watch, read, learn and JUST BELIEVE!


Truth vs Deception

Liberty vs Tyranny

COVID - 19

Fact vs Fiction

Science vs Scientism


Dr. Robert O. Young and T. M. Ballantyne, Jr. New Book is NOW Available in Hard or Soft Book Cover and Kindle on Amazon.com


Number 1 in New Book Releases!

Number 1 in Medical Ethics!

Number 1 in Human Physician & Patient Medical Ethics

Number 1 in Human Rights Law

Number 19 in Human Rights

Number 80 in Politics and Government

Number 2,396 In ALL Books

Being Sold Worldwide by Amazon!



"Our past covidiocy history will some day acknowledge Dr. Robert O. Young as being one of the seminal medical-science icons responsible for redeeming humanity from an unfathomable abyss.


Despite systematically targeted by a quadrillion dollar medical science establishment for decades, he continues to resurrect and claim ever higher ground in his understanding of human health and planetary welfare.


In so doing he elevates the mind and heart of millions of souls who cherish him as a Godly man and a brilliant scholar.


The coupling of Dr Young with the remarkable T.M. Ballantyne Jr. ignites a most inspired and formidable vanguard in truth and disclosure”. Sacha Stone -


www.drrobertyoung.com


Canada Loves YOU Dr. Robert Young


"Thank-you Dr. Robert Young for being the Camelot of our Time in these days where the balance of the Earth is at stake against the fight of this Dark Regime.


"The Fall of the Olden Ones is finally at hand, and your message to the world brings a desperately needed repose to all the voices that have been silenced.


"Your voice resonates through our hearts as your sound words reassures us and heals our wounds of despair & distraught endure these

many years & life times for those who have walked this Earth since it’s beginning.


"Thank you for bringing in the love of humanity as a messenger of hope and deliverance for the many awakening from the grip of falsehood in this duality of reality we call life.


"Perception has many signs of deceit by the spoken word of what we call the English language.


"Perhaps the reversal of this language will finally be exposed and the Rosetta Stone of Truth will finally allow us to walk this elevation of New Earth in peace and harmony with all of humanity.


"We thank you Dr. Robert Young for being our Anchor in the worst of storms, for being our light in our darkest hour.


"Your support is your true crown of loyalty to Source and it is recognized with such admiration.


"We thank you for every word spoken which brings upon a smile on humanities heart & soul.


"You are a true soldier of our days!!!


"As we watch our loved ones decay in these precious times of hope, YOU have brought comfort in knowing that even if the battle is lost that what is coming will finally bring an end to this life we call war!" - George Boulet - Canada



Solutions to Pollutions


You can NOW purchase "The pH Miracle Revised and Updated" with our NEW book, "Truth vs Deception - Liberty vs Tyranny - COVID - 19 Fact vs Fiction" at a reduced price! Check it out at the following link: https://www.amazon.com/TRUTH-vs-DECEPTION-Liberty-Covid-19/dp/B0BZF59C17/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=1680115764&sr=1-1



Please support our work, reasearch and findings by purchasing "The pH Miracle Revised and Updated" & "Truth vs Deception - Liberty vs Tyranny - COVID - 19 Facts vs Fiction" and Science vs Scientism by donating at: www.givesendgo.com/research



"This is the year, 2023, to return to God, truth, intelligence, faith, peace, freedom, forgiveness of self and others, health, hope, love and charity! before it is too late" Dr. Robert O. Young


"Now is the time to prepare to meet OUR CREATOR" - www.drrobertyoung.com


You must be the Health and Fitness YOU Want to See!




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