Toxicity of Nanomaterials: Exposure, Pathways, Assessment,and Recent Advances
Growth in the production of manufactured goods and the use of nanomaterials in consumer products has mounted in the past few decades.
Nanotoxicology or toxicity assessment of these engineered products is required to understand possible adverse effects and their fate inside the human body.
Schematic illustration of different types of toxicity
Physiochemical Factors Affecting Cytotoxic
Oxidative/Acidic stress results in the variation of the redox levels and results into several pulmonary diseases.
The modulation of GSH (Reduced Glutathione) GSSS (Glutathione Disulfide) levels results in the activation of proinflammatory genes such as NF-kB.
Various thiol compounds such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and N-acystelyn (NAL) supply cysteine for biosynthesis.
Adapted with permission from ref 118. Copyright 2009 Elsevier
Schematic illustration of a lipid-coated ROS-responsive polymer for siRNA delivery
Reproduced with permission from ref 124 Copyright 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry
Schematic illustration of a human body, indicating the exposure routes of various nanoparticles and their adverse health effects. Reproduced with permission from ref 7. Copyright 2007 American Vacuum Society
A summarized view of the potential toxicity mechanism. Reproduced with permission from ref 360 Copyright 2012 American Chemical Society
Schematic diagram of the GO−PEG−PEI-based Cas9/sgRNA delivery system. The GO−PEG−PEI was loaded with the Cas9/sgRNA complex via physisorption and π-stacking interaction to form GO−PEG−PEI/Cas9/sgRNA complex.
Subsequently, the complex was delivered into cells, and the processes are as follows: binding to the cell membrane, endocytosis, endosome escape, transport into the nucleus, search for the target DNA locus in the chromosome, and introduction of double-strand breaks for gene editing.
Reproduced with permission from ref 378. Copyright 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry
In vivo photothermal therapy study using intravenously injected NGS−PEG. (a) Tumor growth curves of different groups after treatment. While injection of NGS−PEG by itself or laser irradiation on uninjected mice did not affect tumor growth, tumors in the treated group were completely eliminated after NGS−PEG injection and the followed NIR laser irradiation. (b) Survival curves of mice bearing 4T1 tumor after various treatments are indicated. NGS−PEG injected mice after photothermal therapy survived over 40 days without any single death. (c) Representative photos of tumors on mice after various treatments are indicated. The laser irradiated tumor on the NGS injected mouse was completely destroyed.
Reproduced with permission from ref 330. Copyright 2010 American Chemical Society
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